Sulfur dioxide (SO) chamberstwo) ultraviolet (UV) radiation are valuable tools for measuring volcanic emissions and predicting potential hazards. A team of researchers developed a new OS cameratwo low cost and low consumption for continuous measurement of volcanic emissions. These cameras can significantly improve our understanding of the transient nature of volcanic activity and help in monitoring and predicting eruptions.
Volcanoes are geological structures connected to the Earth’s core that can expel magma in small or large amounts. Volcanoes are classified according to their activity, type of eruption, geographic area, shape, among other aspects. Depending on their activity, volcanoes can be active, dormant or extinct. There are active volcanoes all over the world, including Europe, and while not all volcanoes erupt or are dangerous, we can all remember the eruption of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma and the dire consequences of that eruption.
Volcanic emissions are the manifestation of underground magmatic activity, which provides information about the state of a volcanic system and allows to foresee possible dangers through its measurement.
He sulfur dioxide (SWtwo) is the most common gas detected in volcanoes with remote sensing instrumentation because of its relative ease of detection, due to its relatively low background atmospheric concentration, and its strong distinct absorption bands at ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths ).
Since their development in the mid-2000s, SO camerastwo Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has become an extremely valuable tool for measuring volcanic emissions, due to its ability to provide high-resolution datasets. However, unlike Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, which have already been installed as permanent/continuous operating instruments on several volcanoes, SO camera technologytwo Only installed on volcanoes Stromboli, Etna and Kīlaueaprobably due to its high costs.
SO permanent camera systemstwo already in operation provided new insights into volcanic activity and its instrumental performance. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the flow of OStwo explosive correlates well with very long duration seismicity and passive SO flowtwo.
A recent study published by Dr. Thomas Wilkes, researcher at the University of Sheffield, UK, along with other research teams from the US, Chile and Australia, describe the development of a new SO cameratwo what have great potential to expand the use of SO camerastwo permanent in volcanology, due in large part to its low-cost, low-power design, as well as the associated open source code for data processing.
The camera uses sensors from Raspberry Pi cameras, which have been modified to increase their UV sensitivity by removing their Bayer filter. This technique significantly reduces costs compared to using high-quality commercial UV cameras. And data processing can be done using free PyCam software.
The researchers describe the installation of these new SO camerastwo of relatively low cost and energy consumption, in two active volcanoes, Lascar in Chile and Kīlauea in Hawaii, United States. The instruments use several pre-built open source Python packages to complement the custom software, ensuring robust, standardized and comprehensive data analysis.
While it is noted that long-term instrument performance testing is required, these kits have the potential to provide Valuable datasets to compare with other instruments terrestrial remote sensing systems such as DOAS scanning networks and trajectory measurements.
So these new SO camerastwo have the potential to facilitate the transition to continuous geochemical monitoring of dangerous volcanoes around the worldwhich could improve our understanding of dangerous volcanic events and contribute to predicting future eruptions.